Fed officials, in their minutes, noted that “a number of participants judged that the absence of further fiscal support would exacerbate economic hardships in minority and lower-income communities.”
“The gains that have been built up over time are fragile,” said Raghuram G. Rajan, a former chief economist of the International Monetary Fund who is now a professor at the University of Chicago. “You have a whole bunch of people who’ve struggled their way into a semblance of normalcy by 2019, and then you have this massive crisis. If we don’t try to protect those gains, it will take a longer time, a really long time to come back.”
Businesses are also in need of more help, particularly industries that have yet to return to full capacity as the virus persists. Major airlines began laying off workers this month after Congress failed to extend an earlier aid package. A hospitality-industry lobbying group last month released a report estimating that 1.6 million hotel workers could lose their jobs and 38,000 hotels could close without federal help. Restaurants are in similarly dire straits, especially as colder weather begins to shut down outdoor dining in much of the country.
Mr. Trump on Tuesday evening indicated he was open to signing stand-alone bills supporting the airline industry and reviving the Paycheck Protection Program, which issued more than half a trillion dollars in grants and loans to small businesses before expiring over the summer.
But while economists said those efforts were important in the first phase of the pandemic, businesses are facing new challenges that will require a different approach. For instance, any new program probably needs to be more flexible, allowing businesses to make adjustments — including laying off workers — to survive a crisis that could stretch on another year or more.
Steven Hamilton, a George Washington University economist, said lawmakers should “radically expand” a tax credit that offsets the costs of retaining employees, along with additional aid for fixed costs like rent. He said any delay in help, especially until next year, “would be catastrophic.”
“It is much faster to close a business than to start one,” he said. “It took us a decade to regain the businesses lost in just three years during the Great Recession. The labor market seems to have hit a ceiling in recent months, and a big part of that is that many workers’ former employers no longer exist.”